Food safety and quality concern increasingly both consumers and the entire food sector involved. The European Union has implemented specific legislation for food products in order to monitor food safety and quality, protecting each country’s culture, history and local economy at the same time. Moreover, Europe’s heritage is being enriched, by establishing quality schemes such as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Europe’s interest and concern regarding food safety proved also by Framework Program 5 Horizon 2020 continuous funding.Food traceability as well as food authentication constitute inseparable parts of food safety and quality. This systematic review presents innovative research technologies which are used in Europe for food traceability and authentication and published within the period 2010–2018. Moreover, information about the method used, the country of origin, the food type and the level of food process, are provided.This paper offers a new possible approach regarding the combination of the existing definitions of food traceability and authentication, as far as food provenance is concerned.