Abstract: Biosensors for sensitive and specific detection of foodborne and waterborne pathogens are particularly valued for their portability, usability, relatively low cost, and real-time or near real-time response. Their application is widespread in several domains, including environ- mental monitoring. The main limitation of currently developed biosensors is a lack of sen- sitivity and specificity in complex matrices. Due to increased interest in biosensor develop- ment, we conducted a systematic review, complying with the PRISMA guidelines, covering the period from January 2010 to December 2019. The review is focused on biosensor applica- tions in the identification of foodborne and waterborne microorganisms based on research articles identified in the Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus search engines. Efforts are still in progress to overcome detection limitations and to provide a rapid detection system which will safeguard water and food quality. The use of biosensors is an essential tool with appli- cability in the evaluation and monitoring of the environment and food, with great impact in public health.